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Mission Chinese Finds New Manhattan Space

Mission Chinese Finds New Manhattan Space

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Danny Bowien’s restaurant will open in Rosette’s space

Danny Bowien announced Friday that Mission Chinese would be reopening in Rosette's space.

New York has a reason to celebrate this weekend, because Danny Bowien’s Mission Chinese Food has found itself a new home and is moving back to the city.

Bowien announced the news Friday on Twitter with a photo of his family standing in front of the new restaurant space, which previously housed Rosette.

“Fall preview …” Bowien wrote.

Rosette owner Ron Castellano announced Thursday that the restaurant would be closing after last night’s service.

“We got an offer for the space that's too good to pass up,” Castellano told Eater, and that offer turned out to be from Bowien. He said he plans to reopen Rosette at some point, but possibly in Detroit instead of Manhattan.

Bowien closed the New York branch of his critically acclaimed “weird Chinese” restaurant in November of last year, after the Department of Health shut it down twice in three weeks. Mission Chinese Food has been looking for a new Manhattan location ever since.

How Chef Angela Dimayuga Is Evolving the Hotel Restaurant Experience

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

The challenge of being a chef is not only to create interesting, distinctive dishes—it’s about creating a memorable experience. That feat becomes even tougher when in a hotel setting, where guests don’t necessarily come to take in the food, but to rest their heads at night after a long day of sightseeing or business meetings.

Angela Dimayuga’s perspective on it all? Challenge accepted.

The former executive chef at Mission Chinese began her role as The Standard’s creative director of food and culture in May. Now, she’s focused on elevating the hotel group’s dining experiences while cultivating a more unique sense of identity there. (After all, many of The Standard’s hotel locations are in bustling metropolises, where the food scene is only becoming increasingly saturated.) “I’d love to change the misperception that a hotel restaurant is just a hotel restaurant,” Dimayuga says. “I am focused on incorporating my restaurant perspective to bring in new elements to help evolve the brand.”

Dimayuga has long pushed the boundaries of her profession. Yes, she was involved in defining one of Manhattan’s buzziest downtown hotspots, but her perspective on her craft surpasses just food. She frequently collaborates with everyone from artists to fashion designers—a quick peek at her Instagram proves she has killer Kenzo-filled style, plus she recently designed a line of bathing suits in partnership with Everybody.World—and sees the culinary scene as an opportunity to merge all of these creative forces together. “This role was created especially for me,” she says. “I had been doing a lot of collaborative work with artists, farmers, activists, designers, and had the opportunity to continue a lot of these partnerships with my new role. My work touches all elements of food, beverage and culture—and where they meet.”

As a result, one of Dimayuga’s first projects was launching The Standard’s “Chefs Stand Up” dinner series, which directly benefits the ACLU’s immigrant rights project, defending immigrants against discrimination. Held through December, the hotel group is hosting nine pop-up dinners across The Standard’s locations in Miami Beach, New York’s East Village and downtown Los Angeles—three dinners held at each location—featuring both established and emerging chefs who create special menus for their respective evenings. In addition to the food, each participating chef will also put on their own art display.

On the moon, China’s Chang’e 3 Yutu rover finds a new type of basaltic rock

This image shows China’s Chang’e 3 Yutu rover on the moon. The rover has found evidence of a new type of rock.

Sometimes fresh interplanetary discoveries can be made right next door. China’s Chang’e 3 rover has found evidence of a new type of basaltic rock in one of the dark basins on the moon.

The findings, published in the journal Nature Communications, focus on a geologically young region of the moon’s surface – and shed fresh light on the evolution of our nearest neighbor.

“We recognize a new type of lunar basalt with a distinctive chemical properties and mineral assemblage compared with the samples from Apollo and Luna, and the lunar meteorites,” lead author Zongcheng Ling, a planetary scientist at Shandong University in China, said in an email. “These newly characterized basalts reveal a more diverse moon than the one that emerged from studies following the Apollo and Luna missions.”

The moon might be the most familiar of celestial objects, but there’s still a whole lot we don’t know about our nearest neighbor in space. Though ground telescopes and lunar orbiters have sent back reams of data about the moon’s surface and composition, neither NASA nor Russia has sent a rover back to the moon in several decades, with the U.S. focusing on more distant worlds such as Mars. So the rocks examined, and in some cases brought back, by these missions have served to corroborate the findings from orbiting missions.

Both views are understandable – after all, the moon is basically a dead barren rock, and more distant worlds, such as Mars, Europa or Enceladus, have a better chance of having life-friendly environments, whether in their past or present. But the moon is thought to be made up of Earth-stuff, born out of the planet’s own body after a collision with a Mars-sized missile – and so a fuller understanding of our lunar companion could actually reveal more about the early Earth.

In the meantime, China has thrown its hat into the lunar-visiting ring. The Chang’e 3 orbiter touched down on the moon in late 2013, releasing the Yutu, or Jade Rabbit, rover onto the surface. Although the spacecraft ran into trouble soon after landing, the data sent back has still offered a new look at the surface.

In the new paper, the researchers analyzed soil examined by the Yutu rover at the Chang’e 3 landing site, in a 450-meter-wide crater in the north of the Imbrium basin, an ancient lava floodplain that today can be seen in the larger “eye” on the face of the “man in the moon.”

These rocks in lava floodplains are particularly interesting because they offer hints into parts of the moon’s past that are hidden from sight, said Noah Petro, a lunar geologist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland who was not involved in the study.

“Because it’s something on the surface today but it came up from the deep interior . it also tells us what’s going on beneath the surface as well,” Petro said.

Yutu used its Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer and Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer to study the regolith – soil that the scientists think was recently dug out of the ground by an impact on the surface. Since that crater is relatively fresh, the soil must be fresh as well, as-yet unmixed with other debris on the lunar surface. So the researchers study this soil to understand what the subsurface of the moon looked like.

Based on the chemicals found within the dark solidified lava (known as basaltic rock), the scientists concluded that the composition of this mare (the dark basaltic plains on the moon) was quite different from the rocks in previously sampled maria. However, the results did match what remote sensing missions, such as those in orbit, were indicating about this particular area.

“It’s a really satisfying result because it in some ways validates our interpretation of remote sensing data,” Petro said. “By getting this ground truth of what the composition is at this one spot, it helps us better understand the remote data.”

And in the rock material examined in this spot – an area that’s roughly 3 billion years old – the researchers discovered a surprising mix of chemical abundances, relatively rich in titanium dioxide and also in the mineral olivine (a magnesium iron silicate). In all likelihood, the basaltic rocks probably developed late in the history of the magma ocean that seeded them.

“We think the Moon’s surface and interior are more complex than we ever thought,” Ling said. “Our findings provide some new constraints on some of the youngest lunar volcanisms and the mantle evolution histories.”

The moon would have looked slightly different 3 billion years ago than it does today, Petro said, with a few warm spots left on its mostly cooled surface.

“If you were a time traveler and went back . you would have seen areas glowing with small volcanic eruptions,” Petro said. A few of the small but signature craters pocking its surface would not yet exist.

There are still plenty of unanswered questions about this new lunar basalt that Ling says scientists are hoping to answer by continuing to study the basalts using data from other lunar explorers and meteorites – chunks of the moon that fall to Earth.

“We will also look forward for future lunar mission (like the sample return mission by Chang’e-5) which can help to resolve these puzzles,” Ling added.

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The room was finally unlocked the next month when health officials closed the restaurant again.

Court papers say the room "proved to be an absolute cesspool: drain water and sludge emptying into a veritable swamp with the corpses of mice littering the ground. (The exterminator) stated. (it) was the worst health risk he had seen in years."

Court papers say landlord Alon Noy "flatly refused" to clean the room or pour a new concrete foundation for it as prescribed by exterminators.

Rather than have the restaurant closed for a third time and lose their permit to serve food, the restaurant owners permanently closed the shop and are now operating at pop up sites in Brooklyn on Court Street and Bond Street — at least during the month of August.

Noy's lawyer, Darren Marks, said his client denies the allegations in the court papers and will not comment on pending litigation.

Share All sharing options for: 10 Old-Fashioned Chinese-American Restaurants to Try in NYC

The history of Chinese-American cuisine goes way, way back to the mid-19th century, when Chinese immigrants arrived in San Francisco in two distinct waves. The first appeared during the Gold Rush (1849 to 1855), and a decade later the second arrived to work on the First Transcontinental Railroad (1863 to 1869). The gold-seeking Chinese Forty-Niners, numbering an estimated 100,000, eventually became discouraged and turned to other occupations across the breadth of Northern California. Soon thereafter, as indentured Chinese railroad work crews set out from Oakland headed eastward, each group of 80 or so chose a camp cook, whose responsibility it was to make a semblance of Cantonese food based on raw materials acquired from local farmers en route.

The new Gold Rush restaurateurs and railroad chefs collaborated in creating Chinese-American cuisine, with help from a few cooks in the gradually growing Chinatowns around the country. By all accounts, their first invention was chop suey. This flexible recipe featured meat and vegetables stir-fried into something already partly familiar to Americans as "hash" — canned ingredients like bean sprouts, water chestnuts, and bamboo shoots notwithstanding. Such recipes as chow mein, egg rolls, pepper steak, lo mein, egg foo young, shrimp toast, sweet-and-sour pork, and wonton soup gradually followed, making up a roster that came to include dozens of dishes that partly catered to American tastes. Meanwhile, beleaguered sailors started New York's first Chinatown around the time of the Civil War by 1885, according to William Grimes in Appetite City, our city could boast six Chinese restaurants.

By 1924, Chinese restaurants had become synonymous with floor shows and musical entertainment, and there were 14 in the vicinity of Times Square. But it probably wasn't until the 1930s that neighborhood Chinese restaurants started to appear around the five boroughs. They saw their heyday in the 40s and 50s, when a legion of housewives found employment outside the home and carryout Chinese became a necessity for feeding a family with two working parents. It also betokened a kind of cultural exoticism in a country that was rapidly becoming less homogenous, and one with returning GIs who had been become familiar with Asian cuisines during World War II and the Korean War.

By the 70s and 80s though, appreciation for salty, bland, and sometimes greasy Chinese-American food, now over a century old, had begun to wane. What killed it? The incursion of other types of fast food, and the appearance of other forms of Asian food — specifically, recently arrived fare from other Chinese regions, less tailored to meat-and-potato American tastes and hence more interesting to a city with diversifying culinary interests. Health concerns also killed it in the last decades of the 20th century "low salt" and "fat-free" became watchwords. Nowadays, Chinese-American fare is an endangered species, even though some of its vegetable-heavy creations are aligned with modern notions of what's good for you. Here are 10 places that keep the old wok-flame alive.

Wo Hop — Isolated in its little corner of Chinatown on lower Mott amidst other fossilized establishments like Wing On Wo & Co. (selling "Oriental Gifts"), Wo Hop is the city's second oldest Chinese restaurant, founded in 1938. (Only Nom Wah Tea Parlor, originated in 1920 but recently hipsterized, is older.) The secret of Wo Hop's longevity? Both the purity of its Chinese-American fare, which seemingly uses no ginger, garlic, or soy sauce, and the small, subterranean nature of the real estate it occupies. Sweep down the red stairway into a small square room plastered with snapshots of its enthusiastic patrons. Communicating with each other in Cantonese, the stately waiters wear starched, light blue shopcoats and don't miss a move as they pass around massive platters of chicken chow mein, sweet-and-sour pork, subgum egg foo young (in the section dubbed "Chinese Omelettes"), and beef chow fun. Bring a crowd for maximum entertainment. 17 Mott St, (212) 962-8617

Hop Kee — Though it looks as old as Wop Hop, and indeed occupies an identical space a couple of storefronts south, Hop Kee is a comparative youngster, founded in 1968. The menu of classics is also similar, though Hop Kee bests Wo Hop in having a section devoted entirely to chop suey — the oldest recipe in the Chinese-American canon. It's one of the few restaurants in town to still offer this stir fry of bean sprouts, celery, water chestnuts, and cabbage with a choice of chicken, pork, or shrimp. The interior looks a little more modern than Wo Hop's, but attaining it requires the same march down a dodgy looking stairway. 21 Mott St., (212) 964-8365

China 1 — Like Famous Ray's was for pizza, China 1 was once the most popular name for neighborhood Chinese restaurants, and there were several with similar monikers dotted around the five boroughs. Now the Bushwick evocation is one of the few remaining, a small storefront with limited seating at three orange tables. The place doesn't look that old until you peer into the kitchen, which seems to have originated far back in the previous century. I asked the high school kid at the counter how old the restaurant was and he replied without hesitation, "three years," then backpedaled: "But many people owned it before my father." Despite (or maybe because of) the decrepitude of the premises, the food here is especially spot on as its mainly Latin patrons will attest, from the seafood-and-meat-heavy happy family to the gravy-driven pepper steak to the stylishly deconstructed chicken chow mein. A $5.50 lunch special includes pork fried rice, wonton soup, and a free soda. Pick the ethereal chicken with broccoli. 199 Irving Ave, Brooklyn, (718) 417-9527

Music Kitchen interior and egg roll.

Music Kitchen — This closet-size spot with a lyrical name exists on a commercial stretch of Southern Boulevard in the Bronx and caters to nearby government administrative buildings. Two tables grace the interior, but most business is lunchtime carryout. The classic egg rolls bulging with cabbage and shreds of roast pork are worth trying the frying is impeccable. Chow meins tend to be vegetable-heavy and non-greasy, which is good for you, right? And the kitchen gets creative with subgum wonton, a stir fry of beef, shrimp, chicken, and pork with wontons — app and entree rolled into one! 1915 Southern Blvd, Bronx, (718) 378-5388

King Food — Years ago, when The Insiders Guide to Chinese Restaurants in New York (Grosset & Dunlap, 1969) was authored by William Clifford, the Upper West Side was a stronghold of Chinese-American restaurants. In fact there were a dozen in the vicinity of West 90th Street, and moo shu pork was one of their most popular dishes. Nowadays, not so much. King Food is one of the few great ones remaining, a couple of tables in a space with a bustling and gleaming kitchen devoted mainly to carryout. I once called the egg foo young the best in the city — three crisp patties (pick shrimp or mushroom) in a tidal wave of brown gravy, but the house special chop suey, ham fried rice, and chicken with broccoli are also worth ordering. 489 Amsterdam Ave, (212) 799-8467

Shrimp with lobster sauce at Golden Forest.

Golden Forest — For regional Chinese fare from Shanghai or Fujian, or for an updated take on Cantonese food via Hong Kong, Chinatown proper is your place. But ringing Chinatown like a diamond necklace, and often only a block or two beyond its fuzzy limits, you'll find hoary restaurants that cater to mainly non-Asian patrons who seek out old-fashioned Chinese-American food. Golden Forest is a Lower East Side mainstay, with a distinctive orange awning and comfortable seating. Favorites include shrimp with lobster sauce, moo shu pork, and scallion pancakes. 353 Grand Street, (212) 505-9513

Beef dumplings and shrimp curry at No Pork Halal Kitchen.

No Pork Halal Kitchen — No Pork probably dates to the days when the Black Power movement included a large constituency of Nation of Islam followers who eschewed pork, and found common cause in this regard with immigrant Muslims from the Middle East who had businesses in this downtown Brooklyn neighborhood. Nowadays, this landmark near the Barclays Center enjoys an international constituency of halal diners who enjoy wonderful renditions of ancient Chinese-American fare but minus the pork. Yes, there are thick-skinned beef dumplings almost like Central Asian momo, king crab lo mein, lemon chicken, curry chicken, and a rendition of the most famous relatively modern Chinese-American dish: General Tso's chicken, invented on the East Side of Manhattan in the 70s. 50 4th Ave, Brooklyn, (718) 875-9888

Beef lo mein at Chopsticks.

Chopsticks — Until the early 80s it was a Garment Center steakhouse called Needles, but since then has been a traditional Chinese restaurant that, in keeping with modern times, has added sushi and other Japanese dishes to its repertoire. Go with the old-fashioned Chinese stuff in the deep, dark, and extensively air-conditioned interior, including fried wontons with spicy duck sauce, scrumptious beef lo mein, red-lacquered spare ribs, and sweet-and-sour pork. 130 W 36th St, (212) 868-8090

Egg foo young and wonton soup at Shun Lee

Shun Lee — This upscale restaurant chain was founded in 1965 and once included four restaurants, of which two still persist. The menu's nucleus is gussied-up versions of Chinese-American dishes like chow mein and wonton soup, but gradually the menu has grown to include regional fads as they have arrived these days the bill of fare flaunts a prodigious Sichuan component, and the stray northern Chinese dish. Pay $25 for shrimp egg foo young and get a pair of patties fried light brown with lots of jumbo shrimp inside and a side dish — not of the usual brown gravy — but of a translucent copper-colored demi-glace. Everything is good here, if not great, and illustrates what might have happened had Chinese become our haute cuisine rather than French. The setting, with its gossamer wall dragons, bi-level seating, and circumferential black banquettes is a hoot, especially if you're used to the usual bare-bones Chinese-American carryout. 43 W 65th St, (212) 595-8895

New Good One exterior and pork chow mein.

New Good One Chinese Food — The ingratiating name is proof of its good intentions at this ancient Astoria mainstay, which offers several somewhat shabby tables for eating in. The menu encompasses all the old standards, with some newfangled ones as well, including not-bad cheese wontons that thankfully turn out to be stuffed with cream cheese rather than Velveeta, making you wonder if they might be an example of an arcane subcategory of Chinese-Jewish-American cooking. Also find dope egg rolls and luscious chow meins, which are every bit as good as they need to be, except somewhat lacking in salt, presumably a vestige of last century's low-salt era. No worries, there are plastic sleeves of thick soy sauce galore. 28-15 24th Ave, Queens, (718) 267-1688

The clock is running out on Chinese-American cuisine, though dishes are likely to pop up from time to time at such revisionist modern places as Mission Chinese, Fung Tu, and Kings County Imperial. And the cuisine provides a rich field for remakes and bistro-izations. Yet, the old places remain with us, confined to obscure corners in far-flung neighborhoods, often even blander that when the food was first directed at Americans with timid tastebuds over a century ago. Indeed, one of the chief joys of seeking out and re-familiarizing yourself with old-fashioned Chinese-American is to see what American tastes were like decades ago, to see the sorts of things your grandparents thrilled to eating, when those little white carryout cartons were enough to elevate heart rates and make glands salivate. This is heirloom eating at its finest, and it's worth trying if only as a palate cleanser that makes you appreciate today's highly spiced cuisines even more.

Ivan Orkin: Ramen Genius

Tokyo ramen master Ivan Orkin is coming home to New York. Here, a peek inside the mind of a renowned noodlehead&mdashand one of his best recipes.

In this Article

It&aposs a steam bath by the kitchen at the Luckyrice SlurpFest, a multicourse dinner in New York City prepared by four ramen masters. Five burners boil water servers scoot around one another, sweating as they stack fancy three-star-restaurant bowls with wide, flat rims, meant for exotic garnishes or creating dramatic white space. Ivan Orkin hates them.

There&aposs an intense quiet, a tension. Orkin, one of the true pioneers of ramen, is serving his course. He stands awkwardly, forced to work at an ad hoc plating station, raising tongfuls of dangling noodles like a street fighter delivering a flying uppercut in a video game. He coils the glistening strands into the bowls, tops them with bean sprouts, scallions, slices of pork. His jaw is set firm, like a sergeant about to call drills.

For noodleheads, Orkin&aposs reputation precedes him. He is a brilliant anomaly𠅊 guy from Long Island, New York, who in 2007 opened a shop in Tokyo called Ivan Ramen that was so admired, he became a star an instant-ramen company even modeled a flavor after his soup. Last year, a guest appearance at Manhattan&aposs Momofuku Noodle Bar drew a 100-person line and sold out in 90 minutes. Until he opens two Ivan Ramens in NYC this year, chances to eat his food are few and far between, so his SlurpFest noodles hit the bowls with a special gravity.

Orkin turns, handing dishes to servers. They file up the stairs, dutifully and respectfully. In the lull, he finishes a thought he started a few minutes ago. "This bacon boom. What the f--- is with this farm-fresh, leathery, overly smoky s---? Diner bacon is pretty good, you know?" he jokes, cracking up. Later, as the flying-saucer bowls return, Orkin says, "Ramen doesn&apost have to be a big deal."

But Orkin&aposs ramen is kind of a big deal you&aposd know with a bite of the triple-garlic mazemen he served at SlurpFest. Mazemen is a soupless, pasta-like style, not widely seen in Japan, for which the noodles are sauced, not submerged. Orkin packed his "triple" version with garlic in four forms—raw, roasted, pickled and infused in oil. ("Triple sounds better than quadruple," he explains.) It&aposs 360 degrees of garlic flavor, from a snap that travels up your nose to a round, lasting sweetness. The noodles are almost creamy with their pork-fat dressing, slipping around each other lasciviously until you bite into the crisp, chaste freshness of bean sprouts. And underneath, you can taste the nuttiness of whole-wheat flour—one of Orkin&aposs special moves is to make his own noodles, pairing their taste, texture, elasticity and shape to each broth or sauce. Even in the world of serious ramen, that level of craft—or geekiness—is rare.

"When I opened Ivan Ramen in Japan, I knew that, good or bad, I would get attention, because I&aposm white," Orkin says. "So I wanted to make sure that people would recognize my food as ramen, that it would show I understood where they were coming from." His signature style is a clear soup, made with chicken but getting a lot of its flavor from traditional dried fish, almost a throwback in a world where ramen stars now knock you over the head with thick, emulsified pork-fat broths. His soup is refined, elegant𠅊nd a gesture of welcome.

"His ramen is very pure and great," says Shigetoshi Nakamura, an acclaimed Japanese ramen chef who now works for a noodle manufacturer in New Jersey. "Not so fancy, but you feel a love for the ingredients, the dashi, the noodle."

Orkin puts it differently: "Ramen, really, is basically junk food. But I wanted something you could eat every day and not feel sick. And hopefully, you&aposll come back."

And customers did, eventually bringing with them microphones and TV cameras. With that notoriety and respect came the freedom to experiment more, to add more Western flavorings, like roasted tomatoes, or to make noodles with toasted rye flour.

But in a way, being known as an international ramen iconoclast is the opposite of what Orkin set out to do. His dream was smaller than that: He just wanted to be a regular guy in Japan.

In the late 1980s, while teaching English in Tokyo after college in Boulder, Colorado, Orkin married a Japanese woman. They moved to New York City and made a life for themselves: She worked in computers, he went to culinary school and got jobs cooking at Mesa Grill and then Lut, the legendary French restaurant. They had a son, watched Japanese TV together, spoke the language, ate the food.

But then, awfully, his wife suddenly passed away. Orkin was distraught. "Not only did I lose my wife, my partner, but I also lost my Japaneseness. When she died, it was like that whole world closed. That was really hard for me," he says, in the matter-of-fact way of people who&aposve dealt with serious pain.

Years later, he married another Japanese woman, Mari. And together, they decided they would live in Tokyo. "I had this fantasy of settling into a community and just living a normal life in Japan," Orkin says.

The ramen thing was practically a whim. He and Mari would drop off their boys at school, buy props for her TV styling job and hit noodle bars for lunch. "I fell in love with ramen," Orkin says. "It gives you permission to be a slob. You&aposre a cute girl, but you&aposve got fat on your blouse, you&aposre holding your hair back, and you&aposre like, &aposF--- it, it&aposs delicious.&apos And working in a ramen shop is so cool. You&aposre three feet away from every diner. You hear conversations. You see exactly how they feel. Talk about instant gratification as a cook."

But at home, unemployed, Orkin was bored. So one day, after he watched a possible-world-record 17 episodes of Grey&aposs Anatomy, Mari talked him into being the guy behind the counter. He took a ramen-making crash course and taught himself the rest, throwing himself into the drudgery of opening a restaurant and realizing that, as he negotiated contracts in Japanese, found suppliers and met his neighbors in a new way, this was actually what he wanted in life. "I was learning to live in my adopted culture. That was perfect for me," he says.

"There was this butcher across the street. He was such a huge support. He was an old guy in his seventies, so he gave me a lot of advice I didn&apost want," Orkin chuckles.

The Japanese word for foreigner is gaijin. But there&aposs a new word, flyjin—people who fly in to make their money, or get the girl, or whatever. "Ivan&aposs the opposite of that," says C.B. Cebulski, an executive at Marvel Comics who&aposs been working and living on and off in Japan for 20 years. "There are foreign celebrities here, and sometimes people look at them like they&aposre animals at the zoo. But when you go to Ivan&aposs shop, you go to really interact with him."

"I would get in there, crank up the Grateful Dead, drink coffee and make noodles and soup all day," Orkin says. He relished making himself a fixture, a neighbor.

Now Orkin&aposs back in the States, brought home by a desire to be closer to his extended family and by a sense that he is up for another challenge. But how does this chef, whose main goal in opening a noodle shop in Japan was to be a guy you&aposd chat with on the way home from work, cope with the expectations that come with fame?

"I&aposm nervous, man," he admits. But he seems to be going about it the only way he knows how: by first settling into a community. His first new shop, scheduled to open by the end of the summer, is on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. His next-door neighbor isn&apost a 70-year-old butcher who&aposll walk in to gossip, but a mile away is the home base of the Momofuku empire, led by his friend David Chang. He&aposs become close with Frank Falcinelli and Frank Castronovo of the beloved Frankies restaurants. And down the street is another new friend, Danny Bowien, wunderkind chef of Mission Chinese Food.

One night this spring, Orkin was at Bowien&aposs surprise birthday party in the Franks&apos gravel-filled backyard. He brought pots, sauces and piles of noodles and quietly set up a prep station in a corner. People were getting a little tipsy there was a boat on blocks that served as the bar, and there was serious talk of trying to start the motor.

The guest of honor was about to arrive, and everyone stood around, grinding the gravel beneath their feet. One person joked about bum-rushing the door. People&aposs phones kept dinging. But during moments of stillness, you could hear the Grateful Dead, softly, through the speakers. And there was Orkin, swaying, listening to the Dead, getting ready to cook for his friends and neighbors.

Francis Lam is an editor at Clarkson Potter and a judge on Top Chef Masters.


The JWST has an expected mass about half of Hubble Space Telescope's, but its primary mirror, a 6.5 meter diameter gold-coated beryllium reflector will have a collecting area over six times as large, 25.4 square meters (273 sq ft), using 18 hexagon mirrors with 0.9 square meters (9.7 sq ft) obscuration for the secondary support struts. [25]

The JWST is oriented toward near-infrared astronomy, but can also see orange and red visible light, as well as the mid-infrared region, depending on the instrument. The design emphasizes the near to mid-infrared for three main reasons:

  • high-redshift objects have their visible emissions shifted into the infrared
  • cold objects such as debris disks and planets emit most strongly in the infrared
  • this band is difficult to study from the ground or by existing space telescopes such as Hubble

Ground-based telescopes must look through Earth's atmosphere, which is opaque in many infrared bands (see figure of atmospheric absorption). Even where the atmosphere is transparent, many of the target chemical compounds, such as water, carbon dioxide, and methane, also exist in the Earth's atmosphere, vastly complicating analysis. Existing space telescopes such as Hubble cannot study these bands since their mirrors are insufficiently cool (the Hubble mirror is maintained at about 15 °C (288 K)) thus the telescope itself radiates strongly in the infrared bands. [26]

The JWST will operate near the Earth–Sun L2 (Lagrange point), approximately 1,500,000 kilometers (930,000 mi) beyond Earth's orbit. By way of comparison, Hubble orbits 550 kilometers (340 mi) above Earth's surface, and the Moon is roughly 400,000 kilometers (250,000 mi) from Earth. This distance made post-launch repair or upgrade of the JWST hardware virtually impossible with the spaceships available during the telescope design and fabrication stage. SpaceX says its new Starship has the ability to deliver satellites and space telescopes even larger than the James Webb and is designed to reach Mars orbit. [27] Objects near this Lagrange point can orbit the Sun in synchrony with the Earth, allowing the telescope to remain at a roughly constant distance [28] and use a single sunshield to block heat and light from the Sun and Earth. This arrangement will keep the temperature of the spacecraft below 50 K (−223.2 °C −369.7 °F), necessary for infrared observations. [10] [29]

Three-quarter view of the top

Sunshield protection Edit

To make observations in the infrared spectrum, the JWST must be kept under 50 K (−223.2 °C −369.7 °F) otherwise, infrared radiation from the telescope itself would overwhelm its instruments. It therefore uses a large sunshield to block light and heat from the Sun, Earth, and Moon, and its position near the Earth–Sun L2 point keeps all three bodies on the same side of the spacecraft at all times. [30] Its halo orbit around the L2 point avoids the shadow of the Earth and Moon, maintaining a constant environment for the sunshield and solar arrays. [28] The shielding maintains a stable temperature for the structures on the dark side, which is critical to maintaining precise alignment of the primary mirror segments. [ citation needed ]

The five-layer sunshield, each layer as thin as a human hair, [31] is constructed from Kapton E, a commercially available polyimide film from DuPont, with membranes specially coated with aluminum on both sides and doped silicon on the Sun-facing side of the two hottest layers to reflect the Sun's heat back into space. [32] Accidental tears of the delicate film structure during testing in 2018 were among the factors delaying the project. [33]

The sunshield is designed to be folded twelve times so that it will fit within the Ariane 5 rocket's (4.57 × 16.19 m) payload fairing. Once deployed at the L2 point, it will unfold to 14.162 × 21.197 m. The sunshield was hand-assembled at ManTech (NeXolve) in Huntsville, Alabama, before it was delivered to Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, California, for testing. [34]

Optics Edit

JWST's primary mirror is a 6.5-meter-diameter gold-coated beryllium reflector with a collecting area of 25.4 m 2 . If it were built as a single large mirror, this would have been too large for existing launch vehicles. The mirror is therefore composed of 18 hexagonal segments which will unfold after the telescope is launched. Image plane wavefront sensing through phase retrieval will be used to position the mirror segments in the correct location using very precise micro-motors. Subsequent to this initial configuration, they will only need occasional updates every few days to retain optimal focus. [35] This is unlike terrestrial telescopes, for example the Keck telescopes, which continually adjust their mirror segments using active optics to overcome the effects of gravitational and wind loading. The Webb telescope will use 126 small motors to occasionally adjust the optics as there is a lack of environmental disturbances of a telescope in space. [36]

JWST's optical design is a three-mirror anastigmat, [37] which makes use of curved secondary and tertiary mirrors to deliver images that are free of optical aberrations over a wide field. In addition, there is a fast steering mirror which can adjust its position many times per second to provide image stabilization.

Ball Aerospace & Technologies is the principal optical subcontractor for the JWST project, led by prime contractor Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, under a contract from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in Greenbelt, Maryland. [2] [38] Eighteen primary mirror segments, secondary, tertiary and fine steering mirrors, plus flight spares have been fabricated and polished by Ball Aerospace & Technologies based on beryllium segment blanks manufactured by several companies including Axsys, Brush Wellman, and Tinsley Laboratories. [ citation needed ]

The final segment of the primary mirror was installed on 3 February 2016, [39] and the secondary mirror was installed on 3 March 2016. [40]

Scientific instruments Edit

The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is a framework that provides electrical power, computing resources, cooling capability as well as structural stability to the Webb telescope. It is made with bonded graphite-epoxy composite attached to the underside of Webb's telescope structure. The ISIM holds the four science instruments and a guide camera. [41]

    (Near InfraRed Camera) is an infrared imager which will have a spectral coverage ranging from the edge of the visible (0.6 micrometers) through the near infrared (5 micrometers). [42][43] NIRCam will also serve as the observatory's wavefront sensor, which is required for wavefront sensing and control activities. NIRCam was built by a team led by the University of Arizona, with principal investigator Marcia J. Rieke. The industrial partner is Lockheed-Martin's Advanced Technology Center located in Palo Alto, California. [44]

1000 multi-object mode, and an R

    (Mid-InfraRed Instrument) will measure the mid-to-long-infrared wavelength range from 5 to 27 micrometers. [46][47] It contains both a mid-infrared camera and an imaging spectrometer. [2] MIRI was developed as a collaboration between NASA and a consortium of European countries, and is led by George Rieke (University of Arizona) and Gillian Wright (UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh, Scotland, part of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)). [44] MIRI features similar wheel mechanisms as NIRSpec which are also developed and built by Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH under contract from the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany. The completed Optical Bench Assembly of MIRI was delivered to Goddard Space Flight Center in mid-2012 for eventual integration into the ISIM. The temperature of the MIRI must not exceed 6 Kelvin (K): a helium gas mechanical cooler sited on the warm side of the environmental shield provides this cooling. [48]
  • FGS/NIRISS (Fine Guidance Sensor and Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph), led by the Canadian Space Agency under project scientist John Hutchings (Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council (Canada)), is used to stabilize the line-of-sight of the observatory during science observations. Measurements by the FGS are used both to control the overall orientation of the spacecraft and to drive the fine steering mirror for image stabilization. The Canadian Space Agency is also providing a Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) module for astronomical imaging and spectroscopy in the 0.8 to 5 micrometer wavelength range, led by principal investigator René Doyon at the Université de Montréal. [44] Because the NIRISS is physically mounted together with the FGS, they are often referred to as a single unit however, they serve entirely different purposes, with one being a scientific instrument and the other being a part of the observatory's support infrastructure.

NIRCam and MIRI feature starlight-blocking coronagraphs for observation of faint targets such as extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks very close to bright stars. [47]

The infrared detectors for the NIRCam, NIRSpec, FGS, and NIRISS modules are being provided by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (formerly Rockwell Scientific Company). The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) and Command and Data Handling (ICDH) engineering team uses SpaceWire to send data between the science instruments and the data-handling equipment. [49]

Spacecraft Bus Edit

The Spacecraft Bus is the primary support component of the James Webb Space Telescope, that hosts a multitude of computing, communication, propulsion, and structural parts, bringing the different parts of the telescope together. [50] Along with the sunshield, it forms the spacecraft element of the space telescope. [51] The other two major elements of the JWST are the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) and the Optical Telescope Element (OTE). [52] Region 3 of ISIM is also inside the Spacecraft Bus region 3 includes ISIM Command and Data Handling subsystem and the MIRI cryocooler. [52]

The Spacecraft Bus is connected to Optical Telescope Element via the Deployable Tower Assembly, which also connects to the sunshield. [50]

The structure of the Spacecraft Bus weighs 350 kg (about 770 lb), and must support the 6.5-ton space telescope. [53] It is made primarily of graphite composite material. [53] It was assembled in California, assembly was completed in 2015, and then it had to be integrated with the rest of the space telescope leading up to its planned 2021 launch. The bus can provide pointing precision of one arcsecond, and isolates vibration down to two milliarcseconds. [54] [ clarification needed ]

The Spacecraft Bus is on the Sun-facing "warm" side and operates at a temperature of about 300 K. [51] Everything on the Sun facing side must be able to handle the thermal conditions of JWST's halo orbit, which has one side in continuous sunlight and the other in the shade of the spacecraft sunshield. [51]

Another important aspect of the Spacecraft Bus is the central computing, memory storage, and communications equipment. [50] The processor and software direct data to and from the instruments, to the solid-state memory core, and to the radio system which can send data back to Earth and receive commands. [50] The computer also controls the pointing and moment of the spacecraft, taking in sensor data from the gyroscopes and star tracker, and sending the necessary commands to the reaction wheels or thrusters. [50]

The desire for a large infrared space telescope traces back decades. In the United States, the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was planned while the Space Shuttle was in development, and the potential for infrared astronomy was acknowledged at that time. [56] Compared to ground telescopes, space observatories were free from atmospheric absorption of infrared light. Space observatories opened up a whole "new sky" for astronomers. [56]

The tenuous atmosphere above the 400 km nominal flight altitude has no measurable absorption so that detectors operating at all wavelengths from 5 μm to 1000 μm can achieve high radiometric sensitivity.

However, infrared telescopes have a disadvantage: they need to stay extremely cold, and the longer the wavelength of infrared, the colder they need to be. [26] If not, the background heat of the device itself overwhelms the detectors, making it effectively blind. [26] This can be overcome by careful spacecraft design, in particular by placing the telescope in a dewar with an extremely cold substance, such as liquid helium. [26] This has meant most infrared telescopes have a lifespan limited by their coolant, as short as a few months, maybe a few years at most. [26]

In some cases, it has been possible to maintain a temperature low enough through the design of the spacecraft to enable near-infrared observations without a supply of coolant, such as the extended missions of Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Another example is Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) instrument, which started out using a block of nitrogen ice that depleted after a couple of years, but was then converted to a cryocooler that worked continuously. The James Webb Space Telescope is designed to cool itself without a dewar, using a combination of sunshields and radiators, with the mid-infrared instrument using an additional cryocooler. [57]

Selected space telescopes and instruments [58]
Name Year Wavelength
IRT 1985 1.7–118 0.15 Helium
Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) [59] 1995 2.5–240 0.60 Helium
Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) 1997 0.115–1.03 2.4 Passive
Hubble Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) 1997 0.8–2.4 2.4 Nitrogen, later cryocooler
Spitzer Space Telescope 2003 3–180 0.85 Helium
Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) 2009 0.2–1.7 2.4 Passive, and thermo-electric [60]
Herschel Space Observatory 2009 55–672 3.5 Helium
JWST 2021 0.6–28.5 6.5 Passive, and cryocooler (MIRI)

The James Webb telescope's delays and cost increases can be compared to the Hubble Space Telescope. [61] When Hubble formally started in 1972, it had an estimated development cost of US$300 million (or about US$1 billion in 2006 constant dollars), [61] but by the time it was sent into orbit in 1990, the cost was about four times that. [61] In addition, new instruments and servicing missions increased the cost to at least US$9 billion by 2006. [61]

In contrast to other proposed observatories, most of which have already been canceled or put on hold, including Terrestrial Planet Finder (2011), Space Interferometry Mission (2010), International X-ray Observatory (2011), MAXIM (Microarcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission), SAFIR (Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory), SUVO (Space Ultraviolet-Visible Observatory), and the SPECS (Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure), the JWST is the last big NASA astrophysics mission of its generation to be built. [ citation needed ]

Background Edit

Selected events
Year Events
1996 NGST started.
2002 named JWST, 8 to 6 m
2004 NEXUS cancelled [62]
2010 MCDR passed
2011 Proposed cancel
2021 Planned launch

Early development work for a Hubble successor between 1989 and 1994 led to the Hi-Z [63] telescope concept, a fully baffled [Note 1] 4-meter aperture infrared telescope that would recede to an orbit at 3 AU. [64] This distant orbit would have benefited from reduced light noise from zodiacal dust. [64] Other early plans called for a NEXUS precursor telescope mission. [65] [66]

The JWST originated in 1996 as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). In 2002, it was renamed after NASA's second administrator (1961–1968) James E. Webb (1906–1992), noted for playing a key role in the Apollo program and establishing scientific research as a core NASA activity. [67] The JWST is a project of NASA, with international collaboration from the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

In the "faster, better, cheaper" era in the mid-1990s, NASA leaders pushed for a low-cost space telescope. [15] The result was the NGST concept, with an 8-meter aperture and located at L2, roughly estimated to cost US$500 million. [15] In 1997, NASA worked with the Goddard Space Flight Center, [68] Ball Aerospace & Technologies, [69] and TRW [70] to conduct technical requirement and cost studies, and in 1999 selected Lockheed Martin [71] and TRW for preliminary concept studies. [72] Launch was at that time planned for 2007, but the launch date has subsequently been pushed back many times (see table further down).

In 2003, NASA awarded the US$824.8 million prime contract for the NGST, now renamed the James Webb Space Telescope, to TRW. The design called for a descoped 6.1 meters (20 ft) primary mirror and a launch date of 2010. [73] Later that year, TRW was acquired by Northrop Grumman in a hostile bid and became Northrop Grumman Space Technology. [72]

Development Edit

NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, is leading the management of the observatory project. The project scientist for the James Webb Space Telescope is John C. Mather. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems serves as the primary contractor for the development and integration of the observatory. They are responsible for developing and building the spacecraft element, which includes both the spacecraft bus and sunshield. Ball Aerospace & Technologies has been subcontracted to develop and build the Optical Telescope Element (OTE). Northrop Grumman's Astro Aerospace business unit has been contracted to build the Deployable Tower Assembly (DTA) which connects the OTE to the spacecraft bus and the Mid Boom Assembly (MBA) which helps to deploy the large sunshields on orbit. [74] Goddard Space Flight Center is also responsible for providing the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). [41]

Cost growth revealed in spring 2005 led to an August 2005 re-planning. [75] The primary technical outcomes of the re-planning were significant changes in the integration and test plans, a 22-month launch delay (from 2011 to 2013), and elimination of system-level testing for observatory modes at wavelength shorter than 1.7 micrometers. Other major features of the observatory were unchanged. Following the re-planning, the project was independently reviewed in April 2006. The review concluded the project was technically sound, but that funding phasing at NASA needed to be changed. NASA re-phased its JWST budgets accordingly. [ citation needed ]

In the 2005 re-plan, the life-cycle cost of the project was estimated at about US$4.5 billion. This comprised approximately US$3.5 billion for design, development, launch and commissioning, and approximately US$1.0 billion for ten years of operations. [75] ESA is contributing about €300 million, including the launch, [76] and the Canadian Space Agency about $39 million Canadian. [77]

Construction Edit

In January 2007, nine of the ten technology development items in the project successfully passed a Non-Advocate Review. [78] These technologies were deemed sufficiently mature to retire significant risks in the project. The remaining technology development item (the MIRI cryocooler) completed its technology maturation milestone in April 2007. This technology review represented the beginning step in the process that ultimately moved the project into its detailed design phase (Phase C). By May 2007, costs were still on target. [79] In March 2008, the project successfully completed its Preliminary Design Review (PDR). In April 2008, the project passed the Non-Advocate Review. Other passed reviews include the Integrated Science Instrument Module review in March 2009, the Optical Telescope Element review completed in October 2009, and the Sunshield review completed in January 2010. [ citation needed ]

In April 2010, the telescope passed the technical portion of its Mission Critical Design Review (MCDR). Passing the MCDR signified the integrated observatory can meet all science and engineering requirements for its mission. [80] The MCDR encompassed all previous design reviews. The project schedule underwent review during the months following the MCDR, in a process called the Independent Comprehensive Review Panel, which led to a re-plan of the mission aiming for a 2015 launch, but as late as 2018. By 2010, cost over-runs were impacting other projects, though JWST itself remained on schedule. [81]

By 2011, the JWST project was in the final design and fabrication phase (Phase C). As is typical for a complex design that cannot be changed once launched, there are detailed reviews of every portion of design, construction, and proposed operation. New technological frontiers have been pioneered by the project, and it has passed its design reviews. In the 1990s it was unknown if a telescope so large and low mass was possible. [82]

Assembly of the hexagonal segments of the primary mirror, which was done via robotic arm, began in November 2015 and was completed in February 2016. [83] Final construction of the Webb telescope was completed in November 2016, after which extensive testing procedures began. [84] In March 2018, NASA delayed the JWST's launch an additional year to May 2020 after the telescope's sunshield ripped during a practice deployment and the sunshield's cables did not sufficiently tighten. In June 2018, NASA delayed the JWST's launch an additional 10 months to March 2021, based on the assessment of the independent review board convened after the failed March 2018 test deployment. [20] The review also found JWST had 344 potential single-point failures, any of which could doom the project. [85] In August 2019, the mechanical integration of the telescope was completed, something that was scheduled to be done 12 years before in 2007. Following this, engineers now are working to add a five layer sunshield in place to prevent damage to telescope parts from infrared rays of the Sun. [86]

Cost and schedule issues Edit

Then-planned launch and total budget
Year Planned
Budget plan
(billion USD)
1997 2007 [82] 0.5 [82]
1998 2007 [87] 1 [61]
1999 2007 to 2008 [88] 1 [61]
2000 2009 [46] 1.8 [61]
2002 2010 [89] 2.5 [61]
2003 2011 [90] 2.5 [61]
2005 2013 3 [91]
2006 2014 4.5 [92]
2008, Preliminary Design Review
2008 2014 5.1 [93]
2010, Critical Design Review
2010 2015 to 2016 6.5 [94]
2011 2018 8.7 [95]
2013 2018 8.8 [96]
2017 2019 [97] 8.8
2018 2020 [98] ≥8.8
2019 Mar 2021 [99] 9.66
2020 Oct 2021 [3] ≥10 [36]

The JWST has a history of major cost overruns and delays which have resulted in part from outside factors such as delays in deciding on a launch vehicle and adding extra funding for contingencies. By 2006, US$1 billion had been spent on developing JWST, with the budget at about US$4.5 billion at that time. A 2006 article in the journal Nature noted a study in 1984 by the Space Science Board, which estimated that a next generation infrared observatory would cost US$4 billion (about US$7 billion in 2006 dollars). [61] By October 2019, the estimated cost of the project had reached US$10 billion for launch in 2021. [36]

The telescope was originally estimated to cost US$1.6 billion, [100] but the cost estimate grew throughout the early development and had reached about US$5 billion by the time the mission was formally confirmed for construction start in 2008. In summer 2010, the mission passed its Critical Design Review (CDR) with excellent grades on all technical matters, but schedule and cost slips at that time prompted Maryland US Senator Barbara Mikulski to call for an independent review of the project. The Independent Comprehensive Review Panel (ICRP) chaired by J. Casani (JPL) found that the earliest possible launch date was in late 2015 at an extra cost of US$1.5 billion (for a total of US$6.5 billion). They also pointed out that this would have required extra funding in FY2011 and FY2012 and that any later launch date would lead to a higher total cost. [94]

On 6 July 2011, the United States House of Representatives' appropriations committee on Commerce, Justice, and Science moved to cancel the James Webb project by proposing an FY2012 budget that removed US$1.9 billion from NASA's overall budget, of which roughly one quarter was for JWST. [101] [102] [103] [104] US$3 billion had been spent and 75% of its hardware was in production. [105] This budget proposal was approved by subcommittee vote the following day. The committee charged that the project was "billions of dollars over budget and plagued by poor management". [101] In response, the American Astronomical Society issued a statement in support of JWST, [106] as did Maryland US Senator Barbara Mikulski. [107] A number of editorials supporting JWST appeared in the international press during 2011 as well. [101] [108] [109] In November 2011, Congress reversed plans to cancel the JWST and instead capped additional funding to complete the project at US$8 billion. [110]

Some scientists have expressed concerns about growing costs and schedule delays for the Webb telescope, which competes for scant astronomy budgets and thus threatens funding for other space science programs. [111] [96] Because the runaway budget diverted funding from other research, a 2010 Nature article described the JWST as "the telescope that ate astronomy". [112]

A review of NASA budget records and status reports noted that the JWST is plagued by many of the same problems that have affected other major NASA projects. Repairs and additional testing included underestimates of the telescope's cost that failed to budget for expected technical glitches and missed budget projections, thus extending the schedule and increasing costs further. [96] [100] [113]

One reason for the early cost growth is that it is difficult to forecast the cost of development, and in general budget predictability improved when initial development milestones were achieved. [96] By the mid-2010s, the U.S. contribution was still expected to cost US$8.8 billion. [96] In 2007, the expected ESA contribution was about €350 million. [114] With the U.S. and international funding combined, the overall cost not including extended operations is projected to be over US$10 billion when completed. [115] On 27 March 2018, NASA officials announced that JWST's launch would be pushed back to May 2020 or later, and admitted that the project's costs might exceed the US$8.8 billion price tag. [98] In the 27 March 2018 press release announcing the latest delay, NASA said that it will release a revised cost estimate after a new launch window is determined in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA). [116] If this cost estimate exceeds the US$8 billion cap Congress put in place in 2011, as is considered unavoidable, NASA will have to have the mission re-authorized by the legislature. [117] [118]

In February 2019, despite expressing criticism over cost growth, Congress increased the mission's cost cap by US$800 million. [119] In October 2019, the total cost estimate for the project reached US$10 billion. [36]

Partnership Edit

NASA, ESA and CSA have collaborated on the telescope since 1996. ESA's participation in construction and launch was approved by its members in 2003 and an agreement was signed between ESA and NASA in 2007. In exchange for full partnership, representation and access to the observatory for its astronomers, ESA is providing the NIRSpec instrument, the Optical Bench Assembly of the MIRI instrument, an Ariane 5 ECA launcher, and manpower to support operations. [76] [120] The CSA will provide the Fine Guidance Sensor and the Near-Infrared Imager Slitless Spectrograph plus manpower to support operations. [121]

  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Luxembourg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • United Kingdom
  • United States

Public displays and outreach Edit

A large telescope model has been on display at various places since 2005: in the United States at Seattle, Washington Colorado Springs, Colorado Greenbelt, Maryland Rochester, New York Manhattan, New York City and Orlando, Florida and elsewhere at Paris, France Dublin, Ireland Montréal, Canada Hatfield, United Kingdom and Munich, Germany. The model was built by the main contractor, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. [122]

In May 2007, a full-scale model of the telescope was assembled for display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum on the National Mall, Washington, D.C. The model was intended to give the viewing public a better understanding of the size, scale and complexity of the satellite, as well as pique the interest of viewers in science and astronomy in general. The model is significantly different from the telescope, as the model must withstand gravity and weather, so is constructed mainly of Aluminium and steel measuring approximately 24 by 12 by 12 meters (79 ft × 39 ft × 39 ft) and weighs 5,500 kilograms (12,100 lb). [ citation needed ]

The model was on display in New York City's Battery Park during the 2010 World Science Festival, where it served as the backdrop for a panel discussion featuring Nobel Prize laureate John C. Mather, astronaut John M. Grunsfeld and astronomer Heidi Hammel. In March 2013, the model was on display in Austin for SXSW 2013. [123] [124] Amber Straughn, the deputy project scientist for science communications, has been a spokesperson for the project at many SXSW events from 2013 on in addition to Comic Con, TEDx, and other public venues. [125]

The JWST has four key goals:

  • to search for light from the first stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe after the Big Bang
  • to study the formation and evolution of galaxies
  • to understand the formation of stars and planetary systems
  • to study planetary systems and the origins of life[126]

These goals can be accomplished more effectively by observation in near-infrared light rather than light in the visible part of the spectrum. For this reason the JWST's instruments will not measure visible or ultraviolet light like the Hubble Telescope, but will have a much greater capacity to perform infrared astronomy. The JWST will be sensitive to a range of wavelengths from 0.6 (orange light) to 28 micrometers (deep infrared radiation at about 100 K (−173 °C −280 °F)).

JWST may be used to gather information on the dimming light of star KIC 8462852, which was discovered in 2015, and has some abnormal light-curve properties. [127]

Launch and mission length Edit

As of May 2021 [update] , launch is planned by October 2021, on an Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana. The observatory attaches to the Ariane 5 rocket via a launch vehicle adapter ring which could be used by a future spacecraft to grapple the observatory to attempt to fix gross deployment problems. However, the telescope itself is not serviceable, and astronauts would not be able to perform tasks such as swapping instruments, as with the Hubble Telescope. [2] Its nominal mission time is five years, with a goal of ten years. [128] JWST needs to use propellant to maintain its halo orbit around L2, which provides an upper limit to its designed lifetime, and it is being designed to carry enough for ten years. [129] The planned five year science mission begins after a 6-month commissioning phase. [129] An L2 orbit is only meta-stable, so it requires orbital station-keeping, or the telescope will drift away from this orbital configuration. [130]

Orbit Edit

The JWST will be located near the second Lagrange point (L2) of the Earth-Sun system, which is 1,500,000 kilometers (930,000 mi) from Earth, directly opposite to the Sun. Normally an object circling the Sun farther out than Earth would take longer than one year to complete its orbit, but near the L2 point the combined gravitational pull of the Earth and the Sun allow a spacecraft to orbit the Sun in the same time it takes the Earth. The telescope will circle about the L2 point in a halo orbit, which will be inclined with respect to the ecliptic, have a radius of approximately 800,000 kilometers (500,000 mi), and take about half a year to complete. [28] Since L2 is just an equilibrium point with no gravitational pull, a halo orbit is not an orbit in the usual sense: the spacecraft is actually in orbit around the Sun, and the halo orbit can be thought of as controlled drifting to remain in the vicinity of the L2 point. [131] This requires some station-keeping: around 2–4 m/s per year [132] from the total budget of 150 m/s . [133] Two sets of thrusters constitute the observatory's propulsion system. [134]

Infrared astronomy Edit

JWST is the formal successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and since its primary emphasis is on infrared astronomy, it is also a successor to the Spitzer Space Telescope. JWST will far surpass both those telescopes, being able to see many more and much older stars and galaxies. [135] Observing in the infrared spectrum is a key technique for achieving this, because of cosmological redshift, and because it better penetrates obscuring dust and gas. This allows observation of dimmer, cooler objects. Since water vapor and carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere strongly absorbs most infrared, ground-based infrared astronomy is limited to narrow wavelength ranges where the atmosphere absorbs less strongly. Additionally, the atmosphere itself radiates in the infrared spectrum, often overwhelming light from the object being observed. This makes a space telescope preferable for infrared observation. [136]

The more distant an object is, the younger it appears: its light has taken longer to reach human observers. Because the universe is expanding, as the light travels it becomes red-shifted, and objects at extreme distances are therefore easier to see if viewed in the infrared. [137] JWST's infrared capabilities are expected to let it see back in time to the first galaxies forming just a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. [138]

Infrared radiation can pass more freely through regions of cosmic dust that scatter visible light. Observations in infrared allow the study of objects and regions of space which would be obscured by gas and dust in the visible spectrum, [137] such as the molecular clouds where stars are born, the circumstellar disks that give rise to planets, and the cores of active galaxies. [137]

Relatively cool objects (temperatures less than several thousand degrees) emit their radiation primarily in the infrared, as described by Planck's law. As a result, most objects that are cooler than stars are better studied in the infrared. [137] This includes the clouds of the interstellar medium, brown dwarfs, planets both in our own and other solar systems, comets, and Kuiper belt objects that will be observed with the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI). [46] [138]

Some of the missions in infrared astronomy that impacted JWST development were Spitzer and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) probe. [139] Spitzer showed the importance of mid-infrared, which is helpful for tasks such as observing dust disks around stars. [139] Also, the WMAP probe showed the universe was "lit up" at redshift 17, further underscoring the importance of the mid-infrared. [139] Both these missions were launched in the early 2000s, in time to influence JWST development. [139]

Ground support and operations Edit

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), located in Baltimore, Maryland, on the Homewood Campus of Johns Hopkins University, was selected as the Science and Operations Center (S&OC) for JWST with an initial budget of US$162.2 million intended to support operations through the first year after launch. [140] In this capacity, STScI will be responsible for the scientific operation of the telescope and delivery of data products to the astronomical community. Data will be transmitted from JWST to the ground via the NASA Deep Space Network, processed and calibrated at STScI, and then distributed online to astronomers worldwide. Similar to how Hubble is operated, anyone, anywhere in the world, will be allowed to submit proposals for observations. Each year several committees of astronomers will peer review the submitted proposals to select the projects to observe in the coming year. The authors of the chosen proposals will typically have one year of private access to the new observations, after which the data will become publicly available for download by anyone from the online archive at STScI.

The bandwidth and digital throughput of the satellite is designed to operate at 458 gigabits of data per day for the length of the mission. [36] Most of the data processing on the telescope is done by conventional single-board computers. [141] The conversion of the analog science data to digital form is performed by the custom-built SIDECAR ASIC (System for Image Digitization, Enhancement, Control And Retrieval Application Specific Integrated Circuit). NASA stated that the SIDECAR ASIC will include all the functions of a 9.1 kilograms (20 lb) instrument box in a 3 cm package and consume only 11 milliwatts of power. [142] Since this conversion must be done close to the detectors, on the cool side of the telescope, the low power use of this IC will be crucial for maintaining the low temperature required for optimal operation of the JWST. [142]

After-launch deployment Edit

Nearly a month after launch, a trajectory correction will be initiated to place the JWST into a Halo orbit at the L2 Lagrange point. [143] [ clarification needed ]

Once in position, JWST will go through the process of deploying its sunshade, mirror, and arm, which will take around three weeks. [144] The mirror is in three pieces that will swing into place with motors. [144]

A Free Grocery on the LES? Canal Cafeteria’s Founder Wants to Bring It to Fruition

It’s been eight months and over 1,000 bags filled with 10,000 pounds of fresh produce since Canal Cafeteria began nourishing the Lower East Side. And one woman is behind the entire operation. Chelsey Ann Slagle founded Canal Cafeteria to provide immediate relief to those facing food insecurity brought on by the pandemic. True to its name, the organization began on Canal Street in front of the coffee shop Little Canal, with a long folding table, premade PB&Js, packaged snacks, fresh fruits, bottled water, and a goal to feed a community.

With the help of several Lower East Side eateries, including Chinatown Soup, Mission Chinese, Regina’s Grocery, Las’ Lap, Contra and Wildair, Slagle quickly transformed Canal Cafeteria to offer sliding scale, pay-what-you-can fresh produce bags sourced from local, organic farms in the Tri-State area. Each Saturday at 11 a.m., volunteers begin to distribute this food at Rheba Leibowitz Square.

Slagle is determined to expand Canal Cafeteria’s table into a brick-and-mortar food space this spring. Below, she reflects on the organization’s growth, the debut of a Canal Cafeteria cookbook, and their campaign to open the Lower East Side’s first-ever full-time, year-round free grocery store.

How has the pandemic changed your life?

Literally in every way possible.

Before the pandemic, weren’t you working as an interior designer?

I still am. I have one client left, but obviously, I want to do this full-time. I’ve always wanted to work in nonprofits. During the pandemic, I started to look into nonprofits, where I could start and just get in the door. And then the idea to do Canal Cafeteria came out of nowhere. It wasn’t until after I created Canal Cafeteria that I realized, I basically did what I was very loosely wanting to do!

Do you think you could have pulled this off in a different neighborhood? Or did it have to be the Lower East Side?

It’s such a hard question to answer because if I believe in myself, I would like to think I could pull this off anywhere. But I didn’t pull it off anywhere. I pulled it off in a neighborhood where there are so many people who care, so many friends of mine, and a restaurant industry that really wants to give back. Although these restaurants are super famous and a lot of them have a big following, they’re all still neighborhood people, and they care about this stuff.

Would you say Canal Cafeteria has brought the Lower East Side community even closer?

I mean, I like to think so! A lot of people wanted to do something but just didn’t know how. I think we’ve made it easier for them to get involved.

Tell me about your campaign. What is a free grocery store?

We say free grocery store because we want to move away from the food pantry stigma. Not that food pantries are wrong, but I think a lot of people feel intimidated to get free food. They feel like it’s a charity, or it’s take it or leave it. We don’t want to be that way. One of our main pillars is autonomy. We want people to feel like they have choices and empowerment within our space.

How will the store operate?

Certain items that we pay for or that get donated will be charged at-cost. And then it’s going to be about 2/3 free and 1/3 at-cost. For us to offer a wider variety of things for free, we might have to charge for some items, either on certain days or for certain items. We haven’t really gotten to that part yet, but it’ll be a majority free.

How did you get from campaign idea to reality?

I put out a call to action to have some people come on board. Initially, I wanted two people to come help in different positions. I ended up bringing three women on, and they all have nonprofit experience. So now that’s my team. It’s me doing operations, and then the three of them are helping me with our growth strategy.

Do you know where the brick-and-mortar store will open yet?

We put in offers, and we’re going back and forth right now between two places. They both surround Seward Park.

Tell me about the Canal Cafeteria cookbook.

Originally we were going to ask a bunch of famous chefs and food justice people. And then as we were getting it together, I thought, You know what, I would like to dedicate this to the Lower East Side. I think it would be the most representative of Canal Cafeteria.

Are you allowed to give me any recipe spoilers?

Yes! We have 18 recipes. We got one from Jeremiah Stone of Contra and Wildair. He did a chili verde. We got the green fritters from Good Thanks, which is my favorite thing ever. We got stuff from Kopitiam, from Flynn McGarry at Gem, and from Fat Choy. We have Mission Chinese—we got a recipe straight from Danny Bowien, which I think is a huge deal! And we have Las’ Lap, Alex Delany from Bon Appétit, and Bianca Valle also gave us her granola recipe.

Canal Cafeteria had so much growth over the last eight months. What do you envision for the next eight months?

Hopefully, we’ll be open eight months from now! But I see us pivoting more into conversations about mutual aid and food equity. We’ve been on the ground giving out food, so obviously, ramping that up. Every bit of growth we’ve had, I’m like, I can’t believe this happened. And so many people believing in me and believing in my ability to do this and rally people together. It’s super inspiring.

Moving forward, what is the best way for people to get involved and support Canal Cafeteria?

The biggest place we see involvement is volunteering. We’re going to be super active on Instagram, so I think asking people to share and talk about Canal Cafeteria. We really need to spread the word about our fundraiser. If you know of places or people that can help us, this is a community effort! Some of the best ideas have come from people on Instagram.


DoubleTree by Hilton New York Times Square West Celebrates their 500th Hotel & National Chocolate Chip Cookie Day!

Come Enjoy a Warm Cookie and a Chance to Win a Stay at their New 500th Hotel!

WHO: DoubleTree by Hilton New York Times Square West

WHAT: National Chocolate Chip Cookie Day -

Monday, May 15th is National Chocolate Chip Cookie Day and The DoubleTree by Hilton is celebrating! Between the hours of 2PM and 4PM, the newly opened hotel will be handing out their famous warm DoubleTree Cookies in their outdoor atrium. All are welcome to stop by and enjoy a warm DoubleTree Cookie.

Attendees are invited to take a guess at how many chocolate chips are in their cookie jar… The person with the closest guess receives a complimentary 1 night stay and a copy of Doubletree’s Cookie Cookbook – “We Have Cookies: Taste the World of DoubleTree by Hilton.”

Breakfast Favorite King David Tacos Finds a Permanent Home in Prospect Heights

King David Tacos — known for bringing actually good Austin-style breakfast tacos to NYC — will debut its first permanent location on May 11. Until now, KDT’s tacos have been sold via carts at Grand Army Plaza outside Prospect Park, at Coenties Slip Park in the Financial District (temporarily closed), and in Madison Square Park, as well as at a growing list of coffee shops and cafés. During the pandemic, they also launched Taco Drops to deliver ready-to-be-heated tacos and queso across Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Queens.

Now, KDT has leased a massive 11,000-square-foot warehouse space (previously used for packaging Chinese herbs) in Prospect Heights, just off bustling Vanderbilt Avenue at 611 Bergen Street. They’ve installed a 4,000-square-foot kitchen, which the team has been working out of since mid March, and a small retail space up front. Most of the seating will be outside on a spacious 1,200-square-foot all-weather patio with an awning and heaters.

Before KDT’s arrival, the Austin-style breakfast taco — generally consisting of a flour taco stuffed with breakfast-y items such as scrambled eggs, potatoes, cheddar and/or Monterey Jack cheese, refried beans, and bacon or chorizo if you‘re not vegetarian — were difficult to find. Fans of King David could order a variety of options, with or without beans, bacon, or chorizo and one with migas, an egg scramble with salsa, peppers, cheese, and crumbled tortilla chips. While the tacos will still be available for grab and go — steaming in their trademark gold and silver wraps — the brick-and-mortar debut will feature an expanded menu: made-to-order nachos and chips and queso, housemade horchata, a horchata-coffee drink, and Mexican hot chocolate. They also plan to branch out into more “lunch-ish” tacos, including one with steak, potato, egg, and cheese and one with shredded chicken and a verde migas, which will be available after 11 a.m. A liquor license is in the works.

“Just to be able to sit on a patio with a coffee and queso and breakfast tacos, that is my dream,” says Liz Solomon Dwyer, the founder and owner of King David Tacos.

Ashley Sears / King David Tacos [Official]

Ashley Sears / King David Tacos [Official]

Solomon Dwyer founded KDT in 2015, after moving to NYC from Texas a few years earlier. Born and raised in Austin, her mother would make migas on the weekends and in high school, her friends rotated who would pick up the “Shack Pack” of breakfast tacos from Taco Shack for a morning snack. Like many Southwestern transplants, she was dismayed by the lack of breakfast tacos in the city.

“Breakfast tacos were part of the norm,” Solomon Dwyer says. “And even though you know Tex-Mex is not anywhere else, until you really experience the absence of it, it doesn’t really sink in.”

While she was working in advertising, her father had half-jokingly suggested she start selling breakfast tacos out of a cart in Times Square. She laughed off the suggestion then, but the idea always seemed to stick with her. Her father, who was diagnosed with Lewy Body Dementia when she was in college, is the David in King David, a nickname his Texan friends bestowed on him.

“Ten years into my advertising career in New York, I wasn’t happy in my job. My dad was dying. And I was like, it’s now or never,” says Solomon Dwyer. “I had the opportunity to try to make something happen and if I was to be diagnosed with dementia at 50, like my dad was, I would want to know that I had tried to do something more than what was handed to me.”

King David Tacos new menu items are available for takeout and on premise dining Ashley Sears / King David Tacos [Official]

Solomon Dwyer sold her first breakfast taco in June 2016 and her dad died in November 2016. She initially launched KDT as a catering business and developed her taco and red and green salsa recipes with her mother in Austin. She soon enlisted her sister, husband, and in-laws to fill salsa cups and cut potatoes in a rented space in Industry City. After testing out various New York tortillas that couldn’t hold up to steaming, she insisted on getting authentic Austin tortillas and convinced Fiesta Tortillas, which supplies many Austin schools and restaurants, to deliver to New York. Solomon Dwyer focused on catering until she figured out the best way for New Yorkers to enjoy breakfast tacos: on the go.

“I believe in the efficiency and the quickness of breakfast tacos, if it’s going to be a concept that takes off in markets other than Texas,” says Solomon Dwyer. “The lifestyle in New York is to not sit and have a leisurely breakfast or drive for 45 minutes to your office and therefore you can eat your breakfast taco in your car.”

To stay focused on the convenience factor, she decided to launch a mobile cart and applied for a permit in the Financial District and Prospect Park — and won both at the end of 2017. By 2018, KDT tacos were being sold in various cafes and food halls, and another cart in Madison Square Park was added. They were quickly outgrowing their commissary space, and Solomon began to look for a larger kitchen. When she discovered the warehouse on Bergen Street, not too far from where she lives with her husband and daughter, she knew it was the next move for KDT. It made sense to add a retail area because they were already paying for space in a prime location.

The kitchen can sell at least 1,500 tacos a day Ashely Sears / King David Tacos [Official]

Customers can order inside, or at the window that faces the sprawling patio. The floors are terra cotta and recall the shape of an armadillo, KDT’s mascot, and the bar is made of soapstone and wood, with slim wood rail counters along two walls. The overall feel is rustic with a splash of snazz, thanks to the metallic walls and ceiling.

“I envision it being such a draw for the neighborhood for people to come by with their kids or their friends and sit for a quick bite and a beer,” says Solomon Dwyer. “The whole concept of grab-and-go breakfast tacos is to be convenient and focused. This is what we do, and we do it really well.”

Pandemic delays not withstanding, they spent months fixing up the space. Now the kitchen can turn out more than 1,500 tacos a day with the capacity for much more. The intimate retail space has pewter walls and a gold ceiling that helps convey a feeling, as Solomon Dwyer puts, that “you are literally wrapped in a taco.”

King David Tacos at 611 Bergen Street will be open 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. daily

King David Tacos is located off a bustling stretch of Vanderbilt Avenue in Prospect Heights Ashley Sears / King David Tacos [Official]

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